Andrew Salter (May 9, 1914 – October 6, 1996) introduced conditioned reflex therapy, the first systematic approach to behavior therapy, in 1949. It emphasized assertive and expressive behavior as the way to combat inhibitory behavioral and self-defeating cognitive patterns which Salter argued were the underlying cause of most neuroses. In the early 1940s, Salter developed a model of hypnotherapy and self-hypnosis training based on conditioning which has since become broadly accepted.